Benchmarking female participation in firm ownership, management, and the workforce is important to achieving gender equality promotion and empowerment of women. The gender topic provides information about women's entrepreneurship and economic participation in the labor force. The four indicators on this page measure women's participation in businesses in 135 countries. The results are based on surveys of more than 130,000 firms. A database query tool is available to gauge gender participation differences across various firm subgroups. You can also generate graphs to compare countries.

To see the details for a specific economy, click on the links below. Click on column headers to sort data.

Resources

Custom Data Set

Generate a Custom Data Set for Gender including standard errors, indicator values by firm subgroups, historical data and selected countries.

VIEWING INDICATORS

Percent of firms with female participation in ownershipPercent of firms with female participation in ownership.
Percent of firms with a female top managerPercent of firms with a female top manager.
Proportion of permanent full-time workers that are female (%)Percentage of permanent full-time workers that are female.
Proportion of permanent full-time production workers that are female (%)*Percentage of permanent full-time production workers that are female.
Proportion of permanent full-time non-production workers that are female (%)*Percentage of permanent full-time non-production workers that are female.
All Countries 238.118.734.226.939.4
East Asia & Pacific58.729.337.737.843.5
Eastern Europe & Central Asia35.120.839.733.444.6
Latin America & Caribbean40.420.837.823.644.3
Middle East & North Africa5.61.26.53.72.6
South Asia18.88.819.325.821.8
Sub-Saharan Africa36.315.529.922.535.1
Afghanistan (2014)2.44.624.434.347.4
Albania (2007)10.8...37.540.137.5
Algeria (2007)15.0...20.819.527.8
Angola (2010)56.613.550.748.357.3
Antigua and Barbuda (2010)21.317.544.6......
Argentina (2010)38.09.220.311.138.6
Armenia (2009)31.813.536.927.737.7
Azerbaijan (2013)4.12.431.541.034.4
Bahamas, The (2010)58.333.244.3......
Bangladesh (2013)12.74.815.821.110.7
Barbados (2010)43.525.448.2......
Belarus (2013)43.632.850.932.948.8
Belize (2010)30.425.547.2......
Benin (2009)45.426.929.7......
Bhutan (2009)31.3...14.2......
Bolivia (2010)41.321.731.415.947.6
Bosnia and Herzegovina (2009)32.813.532.321.646.5
Botswana (2010)55.316.441.129.354.1
Brazil (2009)59.317.932.830.048.5
Bulgaria (2013)39.124.041.343.249.2
Burkina Faso (2009)19.211.321.612.223.4
Burundi (2006)34.8...11.08.519.5
Cabo Verde (2009)33.116.749.8......
Cambodia (2007)......01.1n.a.
Cameroon (2009)15.710.027.711.331.9
Central African Republic (2011)53.312.225.9......
Chad (2009)40.16.811.4......
Chile (2010)29.64.528.114.843.6
China (2012)64.217.537.838.040.6
Colombia (2010)35.312.138.633.649.6
Congo, Dem. Rep. (2010)38.913.718.78.821.9
Congo, Rep. (2009)31.817.224.8......
Costa Rica (2010)43.515.429.619.041.9
Côte d'Ivoire (2009)61.9...29.916.623.1
Croatia (2007)33.5...36.531.350.2
Czech Republic (2009)25.018.431.526.039.0
Dominica (2010)41.023.632.1......
Dominican Republic (2010)30.011.036.016.533.9
Ecuador (2010)24.117.035.619.355.1
Egypt, Arab Rep. (2008)34.0...16.116.614.2
El Salvador (2010)40.221.435.630.941.8
Eritrea (2009)4.27.740.4......
Estonia (2009)36.325.844.245.753.5
Ethiopia (2011)35.313.633.932.640.1
Fiji (2009)49.1...37.3......
Gabon (2009)33.111.524.3......
Gambia, The (2006)21.3...16.215.231.9
Georgia (2013)33.832.045.046.322.7
Germany (2005)20.3............
Ghana (2007)44.0...34.835.133.9
Greece (2005)24.4............
Grenada (2010)57.324.045.9......
Guatemala (2010)44.215.732.319.241.9
Guinea (2006)25.4...20.820.818.8
Guinea-Bissau (2006)19.9...5.13.913.6
Guyana, CR (2010)58.317.739.1......
Honduras (2010)43.331.740.426.534.4
Hungary (2009)42.413.833.726.557.6
India (2006)9.1...5.1......
Indonesia (2009)42.831.234.136.221.9
Iraq (2011)6.82.48.63.31.1
Ireland (2005)41.6............
Jamaica (2010)38.224.144.520.061.5
Jordan (2006)13.1...7.36.012.6
Kazakhstan (2013)28.318.835.930.348.3
Kenya (2013)49.213.429.120.729.4
Korea, Rep. (2005)19.1............
Kosovo (2009)10.90.318.59.316.8
Kyrgyz Republic (2013)49.028.846.138.554.2
Lao PDR (2012)41.331.731.1...40.6
Latvia (2009)46.331.342.837.753.9
Lebanon (2009)33.529.1.........
Lesotho (2009)18.421.638.4......
Liberia (2009)53.029.922.9......
Lithuania (2009)38.715.141.643.155.5
Macedonia, FYR (2009)36.419.132.434.543.4
Madagascar (2009)50.0...27.528.839.3
Malawi (2009)23.915.623.0......
Malaysia (2007)13.18.728.429.356.8
Mali (2010)58.321.030.633.031.9
Mauritania (2006)17.3...5.12.611.7
Mauritius (2009)16.9...30.126.831.5
Mexico (2010)25.714.637.820.932.4
Micronesia, Fed. Sts. (2009)86.8...37.3......
Moldova (2013)47.526.342.040.735.7
Mongolia (2009)52.036.448.553.353.9
Montenegro (2009)26.024.551.332.250.9
Morocco (2007)13.1...39.838.939.3
Mozambique (2007)24.4...13.510.530.7
Namibia (2006)33.4...27.124.143.0
Nepal (2013)21.817.218.217.111.7
Nicaragua (2010)61.932.334.924.637.5
Niger (2009)17.611.313.4......
Nigeria (2007)20.0...16.119.026.6
Pakistan (2007)6.7...0.80.90.4
Panama (2010)24.723.541.934.444.2
Paraguay (2010)51.622.830.624.342.6
Peru (2010)28.714.135.122.137.9
Philippines (2009)69.432.739.233.553.0
Poland (2009)47.931.140.036.148.8
Portugal (2005)50.8............
Romania (2009)47.924.755.135.940.5
Russian Federation (2012)28.520.143.432.151.2
Rwanda (2011)42.719.732.4......
Samoa (2009)79.8...34.4......
Senegal (2007)26.3...10.17.625.6
Serbia (2013)38.325.748.124.845.3
Sierra Leone (2009)7.97.117.4......
Slovak Republic (2009)29.619.838.936.451.7
Slovenia (2009)42.215.929.524.541.0
South Africa (2007)22.6...29.126.641.9
Spain (2005)34.1............
Sri Lanka (2011)26.18.824.030.817.4
St. Kitts and Nevis (2010)57.821.143.3......
St. Lucia (2010)32.123.741.5......
St. Vincent and the Grenadines (2010)76.038.649.3......
Suriname (2010)18.315.034.1......
Swaziland (2006)28.6...42.542.642.6
Syrian Arab Republic (2009)14.422.811.100
Tajikistan (2008)34.411.831.541.330.7
Tanzania (2013)25.214.345.520.643.2
Timor-Leste (2009)42.9...23.0......
Togo (2009)31.815.125.0......
Tonga (2009)65.3...56.3......
Trinidad and Tobago (2010)45.120.841.631.343.9
Turkey (2008)40.712.424.820.427.1
Uganda (2013)26.415.340.020.740.2
Ukraine (2008)47.127.946.940.753.8
Uruguay (2010)23.119.436.826.052.2
Uzbekistan (2008)39.811.434.126.339.3
Vanuatu (2009)51.4...37.7......
Venezuela, R.B. (2010)30.731.138.532.457.3
Vietnam (2009)59.226.436.028.250.7
West Bank and Gaza (2013)3.51.25.64.95.8
Yemen, Rep. (2010)6.40.25.22.91.0
Zambia (2013)49.823.838.116.923.3
Zimbabwe (2011)56.217.423.411.635.7

Notes

* This indicator is computed using data from manufacturing firms only.

Additional Notes

  1. Most surveys were administered using the Enterprise Surveys Global Methodology as outlined in the Methodology page, while some others did not strictly adhere to the Enterprise Surveys Global Methodology. For example, the Universe under consideration may have consisted of only manufacturing firms or the questionnaire used may have been different from the standard global questionnaire. Data users should exercise caution when comparing raw data and point estimates between surveys that did and did not adhere to the Enterprise Surveys Global Methodology. For surveys which did not adhere to the Global Methodology plus Afghanistan, any inference from one of these surveys is representative only for the data sample itself.
  2. Regional and "all countries" averages of indicators are computed by taking a simple average of country-level point estimates. For each economy, only the latest available year of survey data is used in this computation. Only surveys, posted during the years 2009-2014, and adhering to the Enterprise Surveys Global Methodology are used to compute these regional and "all countries" averages.
  3. Descriptions of firm subgroup levels, e.g. how the ex post groupings are constructed, are provided in the Indicator Descriptions (PDF, 710KB) document.
  4. Statistics derived from less than or equal to five firms are displayed with an "n.a." to maintain confidentiality and should be distinguished from ".." which indicates missing values. Also note for three growth-related indicators under the "Performance" topic, these indicators are not computed when they are derived from less than 30 firms.
  5. Standard errors are labeled "n.c.", meaning not computed, for the following:
           1) indicators for all surveys that were not conducted using the Enterprise Surveys Global Methodology and
           2) for indicator breakdowns by ex post groupings: exporter or ownership type, and gender of the top manager.
  6. Please cite our data as follows:
    Enterprise Surveys (http://www.enterprisesurveys.org), The World Bank.