Benchmarking female participation in firm ownership, management, and the workforce is important to achieving gender equality promotion and empowerment of women. The gender topic provides information about women's entrepreneurship and economic participation in the labor force. The five indicators on this page measure women's participation in businesses in 139 countries. The results are based on surveys of more than 127,000 firms. A database query tool is available to gauge gender participation differences across various firm subgroups. You can also generate graphs to compare countries.

To see the details for a specific economy, click on the links below. Click on column headers to sort data.



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Generate a Custom Data Set for Gender including standard errors, indicator values by firm subgroups, historical data and selected countries.


Percent of firms with female participation in ownershipPercent of firms with female participation in ownership.
Percent of firms with a female top managerPercent of firms with a female top manager.
Percent of firms with majority female ownershipPercent of firms with greater than 50% female ownership.
Proportion of permanent full-time workers that are female (%)Percentage of permanent full-time workers that are female.
Proportion of permanent full-time production workers that are female (%)*Percentage of permanent full-time production workers that are female.
Proportion of permanent full-time non-production workers that are female (%)*Percentage of permanent full-time non-production workers that are female.
All Countries 234.318.613.732.925.635.4
East Asia & Pacific46.931.927.437.738.434.2
Europe & Central Asia30.018.612.338.135.143.5
High income nonOECD39.622.116.441.336.647.7
High income: OECD36.416.911.336.126.843.7
Latin America & Caribbean39.721.424.
Middle East & North Africa22.75.13.715.812.715.8
South Asia18.411.09.618.319.818.4
Sub-Saharan Africa32.715.912.929.219.631.3
Afghanistan (2014)
Albania (2013)12.511.77.948.569.070.7
Algeria (2007)15.0n.a.n.a.20.819.527.8
Angola (2010)56.613.59.351.049.558.5
Antigua and Barbuda (2010)21.317.5n.a.44.6n.a.n.a.
Argentina (2010)38.09.2n.a.20.311.138.6
Armenia (2013)25.319.114.546.434.949.6
Azerbaijan (2013)
Bahamas, The (2010)58.333.2n.a.44.3n.a.n.a.
Bangladesh (2013)
Barbados (2010)43.525.4n.a.48.2n.a.n.a.
Belarus (2013)43.632.718.650.932.948.8
Belize (2010)30.425.5n.a.47.2n.a.n.a.
Benin (2016)36.725.921.330.410.432.5
Bhutan (2015)43.326.332.825.823.823.5
Bolivia (2010)41.321.7n.a.31.415.947.6
Bosnia and Herzegovina (2013)
Botswana (2010)55.316.58.941.229.953.9
Brazil (2009)50.219.4n.a.30.135.444.3
Bulgaria (2013)39.023.912.441.343.349.1
Burkina Faso (2009)
Burundi (2014)
Cabo Verde (2009)33.116.714.849.7n.a.n.a.
Cambodia (2016)46.257.343.746.560.718.8
Cameroon (2016)39.722.931.031.816.127.2
Central African Republic (2011)53.312.16.425.9n.a.n.a.
Chad (2009)
Chile (2010)29.64.5n.a.28.114.843.6
China (2012)64.217.5n.a.37.838.040.6
Colombia (2010)35.312.1n.a.38.633.649.6
Congo, Dem. Rep. (2013)
Congo, Rep. (2009)31.817.24.024.8n.a.n.a.
Costa Rica (2010)43.515.4n.a.29.619.041.9
Côte d'Ivoire (2016)24.414.313.022.717.126.0
Croatia (2013)32.118.716.433.240.940.7
Czech Republic (2013)30.811.67.234.825.543.8
Djibouti (2013)22.314.27.226.610.310.2
Dominica (2010)41.023.6n.a.32.1n.a.n.a.
Dominican Republic (2010)30.011.0n.a.36.016.533.9
Ecuador (2010)24.117.0n.a.35.619.255.2
Egypt, Arab Rep. (2013)
El Salvador (2016)38.428.024.234.728.437.8
Eritrea (2009)
Estonia (2013)35.825.313.635.133.539.3
Ethiopia (2015)36.24.516.527.827.633.9
Fiji (2009)49.1n.a.n.a.37.3n.a.n.a.
Gabon (2009)
Gambia, The (2006)21.3n.a.n.a.
Georgia (2013)33.932.019.244.444.023.5
Germany (2005)20.3n.a.n.a.n.a.n.a.n.a.
Ghana (2013)31.614.914.724.718.032.8
Greece (2005)24.4n.a.n.a.n.a.n.a.n.a.
Grenada (2010)57.324.0n.a.45.9n.a.n.a.
Guatemala (2010)44.215.7n.a.32.319.241.9
Guinea (2016)
Guinea-Bissau (2006)19.9n.a.n.a.5.13.913.5
Guyana, CR (2010)58.317.7n.a.39.1n.a.n.a.
Honduras (2010)43.331.7n.a.40.426.534.4
Hungary (2013)47.120.410.446.453.567.2
India (2014)
Indonesia (2015)
Iraq (2011)6.82.3n.a.
Ireland (2005)41.6n.a.n.a.n.a.n.a.n.a.
Israel (2013)27.310.
Jamaica (2010)38.224.1n.a.44.520.061.5
Jordan (2013)
Kazakhstan (2013)28.318.916.435.530.647.8
Kenya (2013)48.713.48.629.120.529.5
Korea, Rep. (2005)19.1n.a.n.a.n.a.n.a.n.a.
Kosovo (2013)
Kyrgyz Republic (2013)49.428.816.446.040.552.7
Lao PDR (2016)43.145.343.044.7n.a.n.a.
Latvia (2013)36.331.522.844.434.947.5
Lebanon (2013)
Lesotho (2016)
Liberia (2009)53.029.912.922.9n.a.n.a.
Lithuania (2013)35.821.016.538.448.253.9
Macedonia, FYR (2013)30.025.716.138.839.145.9
Madagascar (2013)41.628.220.731.935.035.0
Malawi (2014)
Malaysia (2015)25.426.310.433.928.135.7
Mali (2016)15.311.
Mauritania (2014)
Mauritius (2009)16.9n.a.4.930.026.530.8
Mexico (2010)25.714.6n.a.37.820.932.4
Micronesia, Fed. Sts. (2009)86.8n.a.n.a.37.3n.a.n.a.
Moldova (2013)47.325.728.542.040.835.8
Mongolia (2013)37.835.623.142.355.043.1
Montenegro (2013)23.919.310.539.928.838.9
Morocco (2013)
Mozambique (2007)24.4n.a.n.a.13.510.530.7
Myanmar (2014)27.329.518.733.629.937.9
Namibia (2014)41.027.425.633.825.756.0
Nepal (2013)21.817.211.718.217.111.7
Nicaragua (2010)61.932.3n.a.34.924.637.5
Niger (2009)17.611.35.813.4n.a.n.a.
Nigeria (2014)16.213.913.224.324.219.3
Pakistan (2013)
Panama (2010)24.723.5n.a.41.934.444.2
Papua New Guinea (2015)46.513.812.437.2n.a.n.a.
Paraguay (2010)51.622.8n.a.30.624.342.6
Peru (2010)28.714.1n.a.
Philippines (2015)69.229.931.538.537.131.8
Poland (2013)40.420.616.938.725.240.8
Portugal (2005)50.8n.a.n.a.n.a.n.a.n.a.
Romania (2013)
Russian Federation (2012)28.520.1n.a.43.432.151.2
Rwanda (2011)42.719.712.932.4n.a.n.a.
Samoa (2009)79.8n.a.n.a.34.4n.a.n.a.
Senegal (2014)22.914.111.820.79.325.3
Serbia (2013)29.814.313.735.725.945.6
Sierra Leone (2009)
Slovak Republic (2013)29.714.05.133.332.144.1
Slovenia (2013)34.518.813.333.613.438.0
Solomon Islands (2015)47.422.612.834.0n.a.n.a.
South Africa (2007)22.6n.a.n.a.29.126.641.9
South Sudan (2014)
Spain (2005)34.1n.a.n.a.n.a.n.a.n.a.
Sri Lanka (2011)26.18.8n.a.24.030.817.4
St. Kitts and Nevis (2010)57.821.1n.a.43.3n.a.n.a.
St. Lucia (2010)32.123.7n.a.41.5n.a.n.a.
St. Vincent and the Grenadines (2010)76.038.6n.a.49.3n.a.n.a.
Sudan (2014)
Suriname (2010)18.315.0n.a.34.1n.a.n.a.
Swaziland (2016)36.027.416.940.538.131.1
Sweden (2014)52.512.59.334.514.137.4
Syrian Arab Republic (2009)14.422.8n.a.4.800
Tajikistan (2013)
Tanzania (2013)24.714.09.944.019.138.2
Thailand (2016)64.464.833.437.4n.a.n.a.
Timor-Leste (2015)64.427.061.831.133.536.8
Togo (2016)25.311.410.720.615.326.0
Tonga (2009)65.3n.a.n.a.56.3n.a.n.a.
Trinidad and Tobago (2010)45.120.8n.a.41.631.343.9
Tunisia (2013)
Turkey (2013)
Uganda (2013)26.615.410.240.120.940.1
Ukraine (2013)31.518.812.941.441.546.7
Uruguay (2010)23.119.4n.a.36.826.052.2
Uzbekistan (2013)
Vanuatu (2009)51.4n.a.n.a.37.7n.a.n.a.
Venezuela, R.B. (2010)30.731.1n.a.38.532.457.3
Vietnam (2015)51.122.419.334.132.542.5
West Bank and Gaza (2013)
Yemen, Rep. (2013)
Zambia (2013)49.823.819.038.116.923.3
Zimbabwe (2016)42.516.313.932.119.333.6
  • Notes

    * This indicator is computed using data from manufacturing firms only.

    Additional Notes

    1. Most surveys were administered using the Enterprise Surveys Global Methodology as outlined in the Methodology page, while some others did not strictly adhere to the Enterprise Surveys Global Methodology. For example, for surveys which do not follow the Global Methodology, the Universe under consideration may have consisted of only manufacturing firms or the questionnaire used may have been different from the standard global questionnaire. Data users should exercise caution when comparing raw data and point estimates between surveys that did and did not adhere to the Enterprise Surveys Global Methodology. For surveys which did not adhere to the Global Methodology plus Afghanistan 2008, any inference from one of these surveys is representative only for the data sample itself.
    2. Regional and "all countries" averages of indicators are computed by taking a simple average of country-level point estimates. For each economy, only the latest available year of survey data is used in this computation. Only surveys, posted during the years 2010-2017, and adhering to the Enterprise Surveys Global Methodology are used to compute these regional and "all countries" averages.
    3. Descriptions of firm subgroup levels, e.g. how the ex post groupings are constructed, are provided in the Indicator Descriptions (PDF, 710KB) document.
    4. Statistics derived from less than or equal to five firms are displayed with an "n.a." to maintain confidentiality and should be distinguished from ".." which indicates missing values. Also note for three growth-related indicators under the "Performance" topic, these indicators are not computed when they are derived from less than 30 firms.
    5. Standard errors are labeled "n.c.", meaning not computed, for the following:

           1) indicators for all surveys that were not conducted using the Enterprise Surveys Global Methodology and

           2) for indicator breakdowns by ex post groupings: exporter or ownership type, and gender of the top manager.
    6. Please cite our data as follows:

      Enterprise Surveys (, The World Bank.