Research

The Enterprise Analysis Unit's research aims at understanding how the business environment affects firm performance in developing countries. Data from the Enterprise Surveys serves as the primary input, complemented with similar firm-level surveys and other relevant data sources.

Two types of research products are featured below:

  1. Enterprise Notes are research briefings with concise empirical findings and policy implications.
  2. Research Papers are journal articles or academic working papers.
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  • Gender based differences in managerial experience: The case of informal firms in Rwanda

    The paper contributes to the literature on gender-based disparity in human capital by extending existing results on education attainment to the number of years of experience that female vs. male managers have among informal or unregistered firms. Using the case of Rwanda, results show that the number of years of experience for female managers is significantly lower, equating 80-88 percent that of male managers. We also find that this gender disparity is higher among the relatively older managers and among firms in the relatively less developed city of Butar compared with the more developed city of Kigali.

  • Trade facilitation and country size

    It is argued that compared with large countries, small countries rely more on trade and therefore they are more likely to adopt liberal trading policies. The present paper extends this idea beyond the conventional trade openness measures by analyzing the relationship between country size and the number of documents required to export and import, a measure of trade facilitation.

  • What have we learned from the Enterprise Surveys regarding access to finance by SMEs?

    This paper uses a new measure to explore the availability of credit to SMEs in the developing world. SMEs are found to be more credit constrained and more likely to finance their working capital and investments through trade credit and informal sources of finance. Besides size, other firm characteristics are examined.