This page summarizes Enterprise Surveys data for China. The graphs below provide an overview of the sample and highlight the biggest obstacles experienced by private sector firms in China. The 12 tables below the graphs summarize key factual indicators at the country and regional levels for each of the business environment topics. A few subjective indicators are also available.

 

NUMBER OF FIRMS SURVEYED

2,700

Business owners and top managers in 2,700 firms were interviewed from November 2011 through March 2013.

Characteristics of Firms Surveyed

Chemicals & Chemical Products: 145 Rubber & Plastics Products: 146 Non-Metallic Mineral Products: 151 Fabricated Metal Products: 177 Machinery & Equipment: 153 Basic Metals & Metal Products: 82 Electronics & Communications Equip.: 160 Motor Vehicles: 137 Other Manufacturing: 113 Garments: 128 Textiles: 155 Food: 144 IT & IT Services: 141 Transport, Storage, & Communications: 142 Hotels & Restaurants: 153 Retail: 147 Wholesale: 147 Services of Motor Vehicles: 146 Construction: 133 Chemicals & Chemical Products: 145 Rubber & Plastics Products: 146 Non-Metallic Mineral Products: 151 Fabricated Metal Products: 177 Machinery & Equipment: 153 Garments: 128 Textiles: 155 Food: 144 IT & IT Services: 141 Transport, Storage, & Communications: 142 Food: 144 Food: 144 Textiles: 155 Textiles: 155 Garments: 128 Garments: 128 Chemicals & Chemical Products: 145 Chemicals & Chemical Products: 145 Rubber & Plastics Products: 146 Rubber & Plastics Products: 146 Non-Metallic Mineral Products: 151 Non-Metallic Mineral Products: 151 Fabricated Metal Products: 177 Fabricated Metal Products: 177 Machinery & Equipment: 153 Machinery & Equipment: 153 Basic Metals & Metal Products: 82 Basic Metals & Metal Products: 82 Electronics & Communications Equip.: 160 Electronics & Communications Equip.: 160 Motor Vehicles: 137 Motor Vehicles: 137 Other Manufacturing: 113 Other Manufacturing: 113 Construction: 133 Construction: 133 Services of Motor Vehicles: 146 Services of Motor Vehicles: 146 Wholesale: 147 Wholesale: 147 Retail: 147 Retail: 147 Hotels & Restaurants: 153 Hotels & Restaurants: 153 Transport, Storage, & Communications: 142 Transport, Storage, & Communications: 142 IT & IT Services: 141 IT & IT Services: 141 Small (5-19): 593 Medium (20-99): 1,081 Large (100+): 1,026 Small (5-19): 593 Medium (20-99): 1,081 Large (100+): 1,026 Small (5-19): 593 Small (5-19): 593 Medium (20-99): 1,081 Medium (20-99): 1,081 Large (100+): 1,026 Large (100+): 1,026 Guangzhou City: 116 Shenzhen City: 116 Qingdao City: 115 Chengdu City: 115 Foshan City: 115 Ningbo City: 115 Nanjing City: 114 Wenzhou City: 113 Jinan City: 113 Dalian City: 113 Hefei City: 113 Shijiazhuang City: 113 Wuxi City: 117 Beijing (Municipalities): 117 Suzhou City: 118 Shanghai (Municipalities): 36 Hangzhou City: 79 Dongguan City: 94 Wuhan City: 101 Shenyang City: 110 Yantai City: 111 Tangshan City: 111 Luoyang City: 111 Nantong City: 112 Zhengzhou City: 112 Guangzhou City: 116 Shenzhen City: 116 Qingdao City: 115 Chengdu City: 115 Foshan City: 115 Ningbo City: 115 Nanjing City: 114 Wuxi City: 117 Beijing (Municipalities): 117 Suzhou City: 118 Shanghai (Municipalities): 36 Hangzhou City: 79 Dongguan City: 94 Wuhan City: 101 Suzhou City: 118 Suzhou City: 118 Beijing (Municipalities): 117 Beijing (Municipalities): 117 Wuxi City: 117 Wuxi City: 117 Guangzhou City: 116 Guangzhou City: 116 Shenzhen City: 116 Shenzhen City: 116 Qingdao City: 115 Qingdao City: 115 Chengdu City: 115 Chengdu City: 115 Foshan City: 115 Foshan City: 115 Ningbo City: 115 Ningbo City: 115 Nanjing City: 114 Nanjing City: 114 Wenzhou City: 113 Wenzhou City: 113 Jinan City: 113 Jinan City: 113 Dalian City: 113 Dalian City: 113 Hefei City: 113 Hefei City: 113 Shijiazhuang City: 113 Shijiazhuang City: 113 Zhengzhou City: 112 Zhengzhou City: 112 Nantong City: 112 Nantong City: 112 Luoyang City: 111 Luoyang City: 111 Tangshan City: 111 Tangshan City: 111 Yantai City: 111 Yantai City: 111 Shenyang City: 110 Shenyang City: 110 Wuhan City: 101 Wuhan City: 101 Dongguan City: 94 Dongguan City: 94 Hangzhou City: 79 Hangzhou City: 79 Shanghai (Municipalities): 36 Shanghai (Municipalities): 36

NUMBER OF FIRMS SURVEYED

2,700

After being presented with a list of 15 business environment obstacles, business owners and top managers in 2,700 firms were asked to choose the biggest obstacle to their business.

Ranking of the Top Business Environment Obstacle for Firms

Labor regulations: 1.9 Courts: 2.0 Tax administration: 4.2 Electricity: 4.8 Access to land: 5.6 Transportation: 7.2 Inadequately educated workforce: 13.0 Tax rates: 15.1 Practices of the informal sector: 19.6 Access to finance: 22.4

ECONOMY OVERVIEW

Country Highlights summarize the key findings from the Enterprise Survey

396.3KB pdf file

Country Profiles provide key investment climate indicators for a country with benchmarks against their respective regional and income groups

China Country Profile

China Country Profile

310.3KB pdf file

REGION:
East Asia & Pacific
INCOME CATEGORY:
Upper middle income
POPULATION:
1,371,220,000
GNI PER CAPITA (US $):
7,820

Resources

Custom Data Set

Custom Data Set

Generate a Custom Data Set for China including standard errors, indicator values by firm subgroups, historical data and comparable countries.

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Indicator China East Asia & Pacific All Countries 2  
Bribery incidence (percent of firms experiencing at least one bribe payment request) Percent of firms experiencing at least one bribe payment request during 6 transactions dealing with utilities access, permits, licences, and taxes.

11.6 30.4 17.8  
Bribery depth (% of public transactions where a gift or informal payment was requested) Bribery depth is the percentage of transactions (out of 6 transactions dealing with utilities access, permits, licences, and taxes) where a gift or informal payment was requested.

9.9 23.9 13.9  
Percent of firms expected to give gifts in meetings with tax officials Percent of firms expected to give gifts or an informal payment in meetings with tax officials.

10.9 21.6 13.0  
Percent of firms expected to give gifts to secure government contract Percent of establishments that consider that firms with characteristics similar to theirs are making informal payments or giving gifts to public officials to secure government contract.

42.2 47.3 29.2  
Value of gift expected to secure a government contract (% of contract value) Percentage of the contract value expected as a gift to secure a government contract. Only firms that have confirmed that they have secured or attempted to secure a government contract in the last 12 months were required to answer this question.

0.2 2.4 1.7  
Percent of firms expected to give gifts to get an operating license Percent of firms expected to give gifts or an informal payment to get an operating license.

7.8 21.8 14.4  
Percent of firms expected to give gifts to get an import license Percent of firms expected to give gifts or an informal payment to get an import license.

19.2 32.0 14.6  
Percent of firms expected to give gifts to get a construction permit Percent of firms expected to give gifts or an informal payment to get a construction permit.

18.8 42.3 23.3  
Percent of firms expected to give gifts to get an electrical connection Percent of firms expected to give gifts or an informal payment to get an electrical connection.

3.0 22.5 16.3  
Percent of firms expected to give gifts to get a water connection Percent of firms expected to give gifts or an informal payment to get a water connection.

6.2 23.7 16.0  
Percent of firms expected to give gifts to public officials "to get things done" Percent of establishments that consider that firms with characteristics similar to theirs are making informal payments or giving gifts to public officials to "get things done” with regard to customs, taxes, licenses, regulations, services, etc.

10.7 52.9 22.1  
Percent of firms identifying corruption as a major constraint Percent of firms identifying corruption as a major constraint. The computation of the indicator is based on the rating of the obstacle as a potential constraint to the current operations of the establishment.

0.9 16.1 33.0  
Percent of firms identifying the courts system as a major constraint Percent of firms identifying the courts system as a major constraint. The computation of the indicator is based on the rating of the obstacle as a potential constraint to the current operations of the establishment.

1.3 6.6 14.8  
  • Notes

    * This indicator is computed using data from manufacturing firms only.

    Additional Notes

    1. Most surveys were administered using the Enterprise Surveys Global Methodology as outlined in the Methodology page, while some others did not strictly adhere to the Enterprise Surveys Global Methodology. For example, for surveys which do not follow the Global Methodology, the Universe under consideration may have consisted of only manufacturing firms or the questionnaire used may have been different from the standard global questionnaire. Data users should exercise caution when comparing raw data and point estimates between surveys that did and did not adhere to the Enterprise Surveys Global Methodology. For surveys which did not adhere to the Global Methodology plus Afghanistan 2008, any inference from one of these surveys is representative only for the data sample itself.
    2. Regional and "all countries" averages of indicators are computed by taking a simple average of country-level point estimates. For each economy, only the latest available year of survey data is used in this computation. Only surveys, posted during the years 2010-2017, and adhering to the Enterprise Surveys Global Methodology are used to compute these regional and "all countries" averages.
    3. Descriptions of firm subgroup levels, e.g. how the ex post groupings are constructed, are provided in the Indicator Descriptions (PDF, 710KB) document.
    4. Statistics derived from less than or equal to five firms are displayed with an "n.a." to maintain confidentiality and should be distinguished from ".." which indicates missing values. Also note for three growth-related indicators under the "Performance" topic, these indicators are not computed when they are derived from less than 30 firms.
    5. Standard errors are labeled "n.c.", meaning not computed, for the following:

           1) indicators for all surveys that were not conducted using the Enterprise Surveys Global Methodology and

           2) for indicator breakdowns by ex post groupings: exporter or ownership type, and gender of the top manager.
    6. Please cite our data as follows:

      Enterprise Surveys (http://www.enterprisesurveys.org), The World Bank.