Enterprise Notes Product year
  • Obtaining finance in Latin America and the Caribbean

    This topic note analyzes access to credit for the private sector in Latin America and the Caribbean, comparing access to credit indicators across several characteristics, sectors, and countries within the region. How businesses have performed over time is presented, providing a detailed indication of the direction of several aspects of the private sector.

  • How firms in Eastern and Central Europe are performing in the post-financial crisis world

    Some informal or unregistered businesses are established to take advantage of business opportunities (opportunity firms) while others are established because the owner cannot find a satisfactory job (necessity firms). Comparing opportunity vs. necessity informal firms in Africa, this note finds that opportunity firms are more efficient and larger.

  • How firms in Eastern and Central Europe fared through the global financial crisis: Evidence from 2008–2010

    The latest data of the Financial Crisis Survey show continued negative sales performance, on average, but the general rate of decline seems to have slowed. Permanent employment remained somewhat depressed, with no country having regained its pre-crisis employment level.

  • International differences in entrepreneurial finance

    This note uses the standardized Enterprise Survey datasets to systematically study the use of different financing sources for young firms. We find that in all countries, younger firms rely less on bank financing and more on informal financing.

  • The impact of the financial crisis on supply-chain financing

    Trade credit is an important source of financing for firms in emerging markets. In this note, we identify the firm and market characteristics associated with the extension of supplier financing. We find that firms that operate in more competitive markets and that are less credit constrained are more likely to offer trade credit to their customers.

  • The impact of the global economic crisis on the corporate sector in Europe and Central Asia

    Data from the World Bank’s Financial Crisis Survey show that despite the magnitude of the credit crunch, the majority of firms considered the contraction in demand to be the most important effect of the crisis on their business. In June/July 2009, the corporate sector’s debt-to-sales ratio was moderate. The share of debt in foreign currency was about 26 percent on average, with almost one-fourth of firms reporting a foreign debt ratio higher than 60 percent.

  • How are firms in Eastern and Central Europe reacting to the financial crisis?

    Since late 2008, countries around the world have been affected by the global economic slowdown. The Financial Crisis Survey measures the effects of this crisis on 1,686 firms in six countries in Eastern Europe and Central Asia: Bulgaria, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Romania, and Turkey. Survey data show that in these countries, the major effect of the crisis is a drop in demand. It is not a financial crisis - it is a demand crisis.