The Innovation Indicators presented here are built from a set of questions based on a framework provided by the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development’s (OECD) Oslo Manual. Following the Oslo Manual, product innovation is defined as the introduction of a new or significantly improved product (including goods and/or services), while process innovation is disentangled into three components: a) methods of manufacturing goods or offering services; b) logistics, delivery, or distribution methods for inputs, products, or services; and c) supporting activities such as maintenance systems or operations for purchasing, accounting, or computing.

The framework provided by the Oslo Manual is currently the main reference for innovation surveys. However, one challenge in measuring innovation outcomes based on this approach is the subjective nature of many of the questions used. To assess the reliability of this approach, the Enterprise Analysis Unit of the World Bank Group conducted an experiment. Randomly selected Enterprise Survey respondents in selected economies were given an in-depth innovation module in which additional details on the innovation introduced were collected in order to corroborate the reliability of the answers that were provided in the main survey. The results of the experiment are discussed in Cirera and Muzi (2016) and show a generalized tendency to over report innovation when the approach based on the Oslo Manual is used. Data from the experiment are available to download upon registration on the Enterprise Surveys portal.

database query tool is available to help you better understand the prevalence of innovation and technology across various firm subgroups. You can also generate graphs to compare economies.

To see the details for a specific economy, click on the links below. Click on column headers to sort data.

* This indicator is computed using data from manufacturing firms only.

Additional Notes

  1. Most surveys were administered using the Enterprise Surveys Global Methodology as outlined in the Methodology page, while some others did not strictly adhere to the Enterprise Surveys Global Methodology. For example, for surveys which do not follow the Global Methodology, the Universe under consideration may have consisted of only manufacturing firms or the questionnaire used may have been different from the standard global questionnaire. Data users should exercise caution when comparing raw data and point estimates between surveys that did and did not adhere to the Enterprise Surveys Global Methodology. For surveys which did not adhere to the Global Methodology plus Afghanistan 2008, any inference from one of these surveys is representative only for the data sample itself.
  2. Regional and "all economies" averages of indicators are computed by taking a simple average of economy-level point estimates. For each economy, only the latest available year of survey data is used in this computation. Only surveys, posted during the years 2010-2020, and adhering to the Enterprise Surveys Global Methodology are used to compute these regional and "all economies" averages.
  3. Descriptions of firm subgroup levels, e.g. how the ex post groupings are constructed, are provided in the Indicator Descriptions (PDF, 710KB) document.
  4. Statistics derived from less than or equal to five firms are displayed with an "n.a." to maintain confidentiality and should be distinguished from ".." which indicates missing values. Also note for three growth-related indicators under the "Performance" topic, these indicators are not computed when they are derived from less than 30 firms.
  5. Standard errors are labeled "n.c.", meaning not computed, for the following: 
         1) indicators for all surveys that were not conducted using the Enterprise Surveys Global Methodology and
         2) for indicator breakdowns by ex post groupings: exporter or ownership type, and gender of the top manager.
  6. Please cite our data as follows:
    Enterprise Surveys (, The World Bank.