The Innovation Indicators presented here are built from a set of questions based on a framework provided by the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development’s (OECD) Oslo Manual. Following the Oslo Manual, product innovation is defined as the introduction of a new or significantly improved product (including goods and/or services), while process innovation is disentangled into three components: a) methods of manufacturing goods or offering services; b) logistics, delivery, or distribution methods for inputs, products, or services; and c) supporting activities such as maintenance systems or operations for purchasing, accounting, or computing.
The framework provided by the Oslo Manual is currently the main reference for innovation surveys. However, one challenge in measuring innovation outcomes based on this approach is the subjective nature of many of the questions used. To assess the reliability of this approach, the Enterprise Analysis Unit of the World Bank Group conducted an experiment. Randomly selected Enterprise Survey respondents in selected economies were given an in-depth innovation module in which additional details on the innovation introduced were collected in order to corroborate the reliability of the answers that were provided in the main survey. The results of the experiment are discussed in Cirera and Muzi (2016) and show a generalized tendency to over report innovation when the approach based on the Oslo Manual is used. Data from the experiment are available to download upon registration on the Enterprise Surveys portal.
To see the details for a specific economy, click on the links below. Click on column headers to sort data.